The Physics Department of the Federal University of Ceará was founded in 1962 as the Institute of Physics by a resolution of the University Counsel. In 1968, the Institute of Physics was oficially recognized by the 62279 decree of 20/02/1968. Finally, in 1973, as a consequence of the university reform, the Institute of Physics joined the Science Center of the Federal University of Ceará, changing its status to Physics Department.

Until 1976 the Physics Department was responsible for the physics undergraduate courses.  In this year, the academic masters program was innaugurated, followed by the Doctorate program (Phd) in 1989.

Today, the physics undergraduate program is awarded a concept 4 out of 5 on the National Exam for Students Performance (ENADE), while the graduate program is awarded a concept 6 out of 7 on the CAPES evaluation, being considered one of the top graduate programs in the country. The research developed in the Departmet of Physics covers a wide variety of areas, including fluid dynamics, complex networks, crystal and catalizer engineering, High pressure physics, optical property of glasses, magnetic materials, semiconductors, ferroelectrics, water source dynamics, drug solid state polymorfism, molecular biophysics, brane physics, field theory, carbon nanotubes, graphene and other nanomaterials, etc.